A Tu B'Shevat Fruit Cocktail
Translation and commentary by Shmuel-Simcha Triester
(Bold is direct translation from Zohar; plain face is commentary)
Zohar reveals a few secrets about the fruits of the Land of Israel.
The seven most important fruits of the Land of Israel are listed in Deut.
8:8. In describing the good land that G-d was about to give the Jews,
the verse specifies that it is: "A land of wheat, and barley, and
grapes, and figs and pomegranates; a land of olive oil and honey".
The Hebrew word for "honey" is "d'vash", and in Talmudic
literature it means what we now call jam or fruit jelly. Below is how
the Zohar regards each of these seven fruits in various different contexts.
[The daily sacrifices offered to G-d in the Temple included] "a
tenth part of an ephah of flour for a meal offering, mixed with the fourth
part of a hin of beaten oil". Why this measurement? One tenth of
an ephah corresponds to the Jewish People [the sefira of malchut] which
is the tenth level [of the ten sefirot]. This offering needs to be given
using both hands [representing the arms of chesed and gevura of Zeir Anpin
which raise up the sefira of malchut for the purpose of uniting with it].
The meal offered in this manner represents meal from which bread is made
and is called "bread".
["Bread" is always a feminine noun in Hebrew, and represents
the sefira of malchut]. [Malchut] is called bread, and this is the reason
why there is no angelic minister ruling over the five species of grain,
namely wheat, barley, rye, spelt, and oats. There will never be a minister
ruling over them - only the Holy One, blessed be He. Because of this,
whoever treats bread disrespectfully, throwing it to the ground, will
be pursued by poverty.
- Zohar, Num. 244a
Wheat represents the divine abundance in the physical world. Bread,
"the staff of life", represents the sefira of malchut when it
is connected with Zeir Anpin, and the higher light flows in it. Only the
light of G-d unites with malchut, and this is the reason that no other
ministering angel is associated with it.
When malchut is disconnected from the higher light it is called "poor".
By throwing bread on the floor a person is symbolically taking the sefira
of malchut and cutting it off from its elevated source. This in turn causes
malchut to be "poor", and the spiritual law of cause and effect
is activated, in turn causing poverty to he who treated bread with disrespect.
Rabbi Abon said that there is nothing in the whole world other than
wine that lifts up a person's heart until he is proud and haughty. This
was the cause of the punishment of Nadab and Abihu [the sons of Aaron]
who ate and drank [wine, and then entered into the Tabernacle to serve
G-d] and had haughtiness in their hearts. This is the "foreign fire"
that they offered that was not commanded of them.
Rav said that two things don't sit well with each other, wine and
the service of heaven as we have learned there, "Don't pray while
drunk" (Eruvin 64a). Thus a person who is inebriated should not pray,
and if he prays, his prayer is loathsome.
The worst character trait is pride. The divine light is repelled by ego,
not attracted too it. A small amount of wine uplifts the heart but overindulgence
causes haughtiness and insensitivity and leads to anger. Thus the emotions
rule over consciousness and the Neshama is repelled, leaving no vehicle
to receive the divine light.
Rabbi Yitzchak said there is no wine called "good wine"
better than the wine of the Land of Israel, and best of them all is the
wine of the Upper Galilee because a person couldn't drink half a log from
it without getting drunk.
- Zohar Chadash, Gen. 22b
Of course the sages are here also referring to the secrets of the Torah
that were revealed by Rebbe Shimon in the Upper Galilee, but, as in all
Kabbala, the spiritual reality is matched by the physical reality. Interestingly
in the last 5 years there has been a great increase in grape production
in the Upper Galilee, and the wine has been getting gold medals at the
best wine festivals in the world!
Rebbe Shimon said [as a parable explaining why the Moabites were not
destroyed for attacking Israel], "You can't compare someone who is
going to collect figs in the future [referring to Ruth and Naamah] to
someone who has already picked them". Rabbi Elazar said, "Even
if they were already picked, the tree is to be praised [and worthy of
protection - so the future of Ruth and Naamah could have been protected
by G-d in another way]. He [Rebbe Shimon] replied to him, "Somebody
who hasn't collected the figs guards the tree constantly so that there
should be no blemish; this is for the sake of the fruit that is to come
from it in the future. Once the figs are harvested, he leaves the tree
and stops guarding it.
So it was with Moab that was in the future to bring these figs. The
Holy One, blessed be He, guarded them as is written, "Don't harass
the Moabites and don't go to war with them" (Deut. 2:9). But about
Midian, which had already given its figs, which had been collected from
them [Jethro and his children], it is written, "Harass the Midianites
and strike them, for they harassed you with their wiles" (Num. 25:17,
18). From this point on, this fig tree was not destined to give fruit.
- Zohar, Num. 188a
A fig is full of seeds which are like future generations that issue
from the people of any particular nation. As long as there is a truly
righteous person still to emerge from that nation G-d guards that nation
from harm - even if it is hard for us to understand why from our time-bound
point of view!
[Regarding the High Priests coat it is written] "A golden bell
and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the
robe all around it." (Ex. 28:34). We have explained this [that the
pomegranate with its many seeds represents the souls of Israel and their
many good deeds, and the bells sound their praise] and everything was
designed in accordance with the higher spiritual worlds as we said, for
what is written [in the following verse]? "And his sound shall be
heard when he goes into the holy place before G-d [the Holy of Holies],
and when he comes out, that he should not die."
This is because there is a need for a voice to be heard [below in
the sound of the bells to arouse the higher "voice"] and then
blessing will flow down and imbue the world. [The High Priest is worthy
to cause this] because he [represents the sefira of chesed that causes]
all to be blessed and serves on behalf of all.
We have explained the golden bells, and the [reason for the] pomegranate
is that [the High Priest] is full like a pomegranate that has more seeds
than all other [fruits].
- Zohar, Ex. p.231a
When the High Priest entered the inner sanctuary of the Temple, the
pomegranates on his robe symbolized each and every soul in Israel that
he was representing.
[As a result of the modest behavior of a Jewish mother she merits
that] "Your children will be like olive saplings around your table."
(Psalms 128:3) What does this mean; the children will be like olive saplings?
Just like the olive tree doesn't loose its leaves, whether in winter or
summer, and it always is more important than the other trees [giving fruit
to eat and light to see by in the form of olive oil], so will her children
rise to more important than the rest of people of the world.
- Zohar, Num. 126a
Olive oil represents the sefira of chochma which is always full of fresh
insights. Modest behavior in the home, representing submission to a higher
code of conduct, results in a woman never loosing her freshness and, in
turn, leads to children who because of their fresh insights are more important
in the world. (For example, 25% of Nobel Prizes come from less than .002
of the world's population!)
"Out of the eater came food, and out of the strong came sweetness."
(Judges 14:14) There is a support for this verse from another source.
What is written "from the eater" refers to the tzadik [sefira
of yesod, which "eats" all of the powers of the sefirot above
it] as is written; "The righteous one eats to satisfy his soul".
The [sefira of yesod, or the] righteous one certainly eats and takes from
all [gathering all the higher lights]. Why [does the sefira of yesod have
to receive all this]? It is in order to satisfy his soul, meaning in order
to give satisfaction to that place which is called "the soul of David"
And the words "came food" indicate that if it were not
for the tzadik no sustenance would come down to the world and it could
not continue to exist. "From the strong came sweet"; this refers
to Isaac [gevura] who blessed Jacob [tiferet] that he receive from the
dew of the heavens and the fat of the earth. Also, even though they seem
different the explanations are all one [in referring to gevura passing
on sustenance] because if wasn't for the side of strict judgment honey
could not emerge. What is the secret of honey? It is the oral law as it
is written: "The judgments of G-d are a mixture of truth and righteousness
together. More to be desired than gold, even very fine gold; sweeter also
than honey and the honeycomb." (Ps. 19:10) The strong is the written
law, as in the verse "G-d will give strength to his people".
From this strength came out sweet that is the oral law.
- Zohar, Gen. 240a
This is the source for the custom to start teaching little children
the alef-beit with letters dipped in honey.
Simcha Treister is a lawyer from New Zealand who made aliya to Safed
with his family in 1993 to study Zohar. He continues doing so to this
day. He also works in the Ascent multi-media center.